How to use a Digital Oscilloscope to debug Arduino Projects (or ESP8266, ESP32, Raspberry Pi etc.)

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This is a video demonstrating how you can use basic functionality of an oscilloscope to analyse data being sent from and to the GPIO pins on an Arduino. I used this to help diagnose some faulty behaviour in an escape room-in-a-box game I'm currently building, but this is a really useful tool for analysing any kind of data sent between Arduino, Raspberry Pi, or ESP8266/32 devices, or a sensor connected via an SPI, I2C, or Serial interface, for example.
Whereas a multimeter allows you to check voltage, resistance, or continuity between two points of a circuit, an oscilloscope presents a realtime graphical display of the voltage on a signal line. It not only allows to to check *whether* any data is being sent/received, but the timing and frequency of messages, and to visualise the quality of the data signal - whether you've got nice crisp edges giving precise HIGH and LOW values, or whether you've got soft, blurry values or background noise, which are common causes for problems in communication between devices!

I'm using a DS212 Digital Storage Oscilloscope, which costs around £65 from
It's portable, rechargable, and has two channels (so you can monitor, say, the clock signal and data signal of an interface at the same time). You can get much more complex (and more expensive!) bench oscilloscopes, but so far this has proved sufficient for my needs.
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